PTOA References


1. Khan Academy. Free, online education that fills in the gaps from your elementary, middle, and high schools. Directly applicable to PTOA is math related to adding and subtracting positive and negative numbers. Your Mentor is not an effective math teacher. PTOA Readers and Students should sign up for Khan Academy and refresh their understanding of this subject.

2.The International Society of Automation (formerly the Instrumentation Society of America). This organization develops the standards for automatic instrumentation. Their relevance to the PTOA is their publication of the ISA symbol standard. The standard is ANSI/ISA Standard 5.1 “Instrumentation Symbols and Identification.” Your Mentor does not recommend purchasing the standard because it is quite costly. The much cheaper version made available for students is not sufficiently complete to be useful. The PTOA segments will include the most widely used ISA symbols. The purpose of listing ISA as a reference is to inform PTOA students where the ISA symbols come from.

3.Temperature Conversion Online Tool

In the old days, there would actually be test questions on how to convert between Fahrenheit, Celsius/Centigrade and their research counterparts, Rankin and Kelvin.  Nowadays you can use any online tool to perform conversions. Here is just one:

4.PTOA uses a Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for a benzene production plant several times. This PFD is from the following source that deserves total credit for the PFD which is used to help educate anybody with the motivation to learn and an internet connection:

Benzene Plant PFD

5. Thanks to Systran Houston for allowing the use of their perfectly simple but effective water tube boiler graphic.

6. Southern Heat Exchanger (SHECO) has generated the best animated graphic of how a shell and tube heat exchanger works.  The graphic is found on their home page which can be accessed at the below link:

SHECO Shell and Tube Exchanger Animation

7. Terlyn Technologies has developed an animated Cooling Tower You-Tube that explains the basics of how a Cooling Tower works.

Terlyn Industries Cooling Tower You Tube

Thanks to Thysenkrupp Industrial Solutions for allowing use of a simplified PFD entitled "The Uhde Ammonia Process."

This graphic is used as a visual aid to demonstrate the industrial application of Waste Heat Recovery Equipment and Systems.

9. Learning and using process industry jargon in the correct context is part of the job.  Quotes about the importance of words used in the PTOA Process Industry Jargon recap are credited to the following source. Many thanks to the creative forces behind

Quotes re: the importance of using 'le bon mot'

More Quotes re: the power of words

26 Brilliant Quotes on the Super Power of Words by Peter Economy (The Leadership Guy)

10. The below link to a BTU Calculator helped PTOA Readers and Students obtain an idea how much energy a BTU is and also helped with the definition of Heat Rate. Many thanks to the creative forces behind

BTU Calculator

11. The below link to a chart of Thermal Conductivity Coefficients  helped PTOA Readers and Students delineate between materials that are conductors and insulators. Many thanks to the creative forces behind

Thermal Conductivity of Materials Chart

12. The following table of Specific Heats found at Engineering helped PTOA Readers and Students understand Heat Transfer via Conduction.

Table of Specific Heats

The below link to also helped PTOA Readers and Students understand Heat Transfer via Conduction.

Another Table of Specific Heats

13. The below link from Engineering Toolbox helped PTOA Readers and Students get a relative idea of the variance in the thermal expansivity of materials when exposed to heat, ergo increased temperature.

The thermal rate of expansion of materials is a primary concern in processing facilities because process units must cycle between higher temperature when operating and ambient temperature conditions when off line for a turnaround.

The different rates that metal materials expand is the basis of how a bimetallic strip temperature measuring device works.

Thank you Engineering Toolbox for helping PTOA Readers and Students get an idea of the relative rates of expansion for different materials.

Engineering Toolbox Linear Expansion Coefficients

14. Thanks to for creating an animated graphic that clearly demonstrates how the C-shaped Bourdon tube:

  • Transduces molecular movement/thermal expansion into mechanical movement
  • Links the mechanical movement to a dial-and-pointer which make it possible for human beings to understand a measured process temperature or pressure.

15. Thank you Intech Instruments LTD for the use of a Type J Thermocouple Conversion Table that helped PTOA Readers and Students manually determine a process temperature from a millivolt output.

Intech Type J Thermocouple Conversion Table

16. Thank you Agent JayZ of Jet City for your You Tube entitled "Power Turbines and Thermocouples" which demonstrated how turbine exhaust temperatures are measured with thermocouple technology.

Agent JayZ's "Power Turbines and Thermocouples" You Tube can be accessed on PTOA Segment #112 entitled "Instrument Tech Must-Knows: Thermocouple Final Analysis."


17. Thank you Shibaura Electronics Co., LTD for an interactive graphic that shows PTOA Readers and Students where thermistor technology can be found in everyday common applications.

Shibaura Interactive about  Common Thermistor Applications

18. Thank you Jacob Dykstra for your You Tube entitled "Basic Electronic Components - The Thermistor" which demonstrated how a multimeter can be used to obtain a temperature measurement in a form that human beings understand from a thermistor.

Jacob Dykstra's Thermistor & Multimeter Video